Important Provisions in Credit Transactions

Share this post!

Art. 1933. By the contract of loan, one of the parties delivers to another, either something not consumable so that the latter may use the same for a certain time and return it, in which case the contract is called a commodatum; or money or other consumable thing, upon the condition that the same amount of the same kind and quality shall be paid, in which case the contract is simply called a loan or mutuum.

Commodatum is essentially gratuitous.

Simple loan may be gratuitous or with a stipulation to pay interest.

In commodatum the bailor retains the ownership of the thing loaned, while in simple loan, ownership passes to the borrower. (1740a)

Art. 1935. The bailee in commodatum acquires the used of the thing loaned but not its fruits; if any compensation is to be paid by him who acquires the use, the contract ceases to be a commodatum. (1941a)

Art. 1936. Consumable goods may be the subject of commodatum if the purpose of the contract is not the consumption of the object, as when it is merely for exhibition. (n)

Art. 1937. Movable or immovable property may be the object of commodatum. (n)

Art. 1938. The bailor in commodatum need not be the owner of the thing loaned. (n)

Art. 1939. Commodatum is purely personal in character. Consequently:

(1) The death of either the bailor or the bailee extinguishes the contract;

(2) The bailee can neither lend nor lease the object of the contract to a third person. However, the members of the bailee’s household may make use of the thing loaned, unless there is a stipulation to the contrary, or unless the nature of the thing forbids such use. (n)

Art. 1940. A stipulation that the bailee may make use of the fruits of the thing loaned is valid. (n)


Art. 1941. The bailee is obliged to pay for the ordinary expenses for the use and preservation of the thing loaned. (1743a)

Art. 1942. The bailee is liable for the loss of the thing, even if it should be through a fortuitous event:

(1) If he devotes the thing to any purpose different from that for which it has been loaned;

(2) If he keeps it longer than the period stipulated, or after the accomplishment of the use for which the commodatum has been constituted;

(3) If the thing loaned has been delivered with appraisal of its value, unless there is a stipulation exemption the bailee from responsibility in case of a fortuitous event;

(4) If he lends or leases the thing to a third person, who is not a member of his household;

(5) If, being able to save either the thing borrowed or his own thing, he chose to save the latter. (1744a and 1745)

Art. 1944. The bailee cannot retain the thing loaned on the ground that the bailor owes him something, even though it may be by reason of expenses. However, the bailee has a right of retention for damages mentioned in Article 1951. (1747a)

Art. 1946. The bailor cannot demand the return of the thing loaned till after the expiration of the period stipulated, or after the accomplishment of the use for which the commodatum has been constituted. However, if in the meantime, he should have urgent need of the thing, he may demand its return or temporary use.

In case of temporary use by the bailor, the contract of commodatum is suspended while the thing is in the possession of the bailor. (1749a)

Art. 1947. The bailor may demand the thing at will, and the contractual relation is called a precarium, in the following cases:

(1) If neither the duration of the contract nor the use to which the thing loaned should be devoted, has been stipulated; or

(2) If the use of the thing is merely tolerated by the owner. (1750a)

Art. 1952. The bailor cannot exempt himself from the payment of expenses or damages by abandoning the thing to the bailee. (n)

Art. 1953. A person who receives a loan of money or any other fungible thing acquires the ownership thereof, and is bound to pay to the creditor an equal amount of the same kind and quality. (1753a)

Art. 1956. No interest shall be due unless it has been expressly stipulated in writing.


Art. 1962. A deposit is constituted from the moment a person receives a thing belonging to another, with the obligation of safely keeping it and of returning the same. If the safekeeping of the thing delivered is not the principal purpose of the contract, there is no deposit but some other contract. (1758a)

Art. 1979. The depositary is liable for the loss of the thing through a fortuitous event:

(1) If it is so stipulated;

(2) If he uses the thing without the depositor’s permission;

(3) If he delays its return;

(4) If he allows others to use it, even though he himself may have been authorized to use the same. (n)

Art. 1980. Fixed, savings, and current deposits of money in banks and similar institutions shall be governed by the provisions concerning simple loan. (n)

Art. 1990. If the depositary by force majeure or government order loses the thing and receives money or another thing in its place, he shall deliver the sum or other thing to the depositor. (1777a)

Art. 1998. The deposit of effects made by the travellers in hotels or inns shall also be regarded as necessary. The keepers of hotels or inns shall be responsible for them as depositaries, provided that notice was given to them, or to their employees, of the effects brought by the guests and that, on the part of the latter, they take the precautions which said hotel-keepers or their substitutes advised relative to the care and vigilance of their effects. (1783)

Art. 1999. The hotel-keeper is liable for the vehicles, animals and articles which have been introduced or placed in the annexes of the hotel. (n)

Art. 2000. The responsibility referred to in the two preceding articles shall include the loss of, or injury to the personal property of the guests caused by the servants or employees of the keepers of hotels or inns as well as strangers; but not that which may proceed from any force majeure. The fact that travellers are constrained to rely on the vigilance of the keeper of the hotels or inns shall be considered in determining the degree of care required of him. (1784a)

Art. 2001. The act of a thief or robber, who has entered the hotel is not deemed force majeure, unless it is done with the use of arms or through an irresistible force. (n)

Art. 2002. The hotel-keeper is not liable for compensation if the loss is due to the acts of the guest, his family, servants or visitors, or if the loss arises from the character of the things brought into the hotel. (n)

Art. 2003. The hotel-keeper cannot free himself from responsibility by posting notices to the effect that he is not liable for the articles brought by the guest. Any stipulation between the hotel-keeper and the guest whereby the responsibility of the former as set forth in articles 1998 to 2001 is suppressed or diminished shall be void. (n)

Art. 2004. The hotel-keeper has a right to retain the things brought into the hotel by the guest, as a security for credits on account of lodging, and supplies usually furnished to hotel guests.

Art. 1754. The provisions of Articles 1733 to 1753 shall apply to the passenger's baggage which is not in his personal custody or in that of his employee. As to other baggage, the rules in Articles 1998 and 2000 to 2003 concerning the responsibility of hotel-keepers shall be applicable.

Art. 2011. The contract of insurance is governed by special laws. Matters not expressly provided for in such special laws shall be regulated by this Code. (n)

Art. 2012. Any person who is forbidden from receiving any donation under Article 739 cannot be named beneficiary of a life insurance policy by the person who cannot make any donation to him, according to said article. (n)

Art. 739. The following donations shall be void: 

(1) Those made between persons who were guilty of adultery or concubinage at the time of the donation; 

(2) Those made between persons found guilty of the same criminal offense, in consideration thereof; 

(3) Those made to a public officer or his wife, descedants and ascendants, by reason of his office.

In the case referred to in No. 1, the action for declaration of nullity may be brought by the spouse of the donor or donee; and the guilt of the donor and donee may be proved by preponderance of evidence in the same action. (n) 

Art. 2014. No action can be maintained by the winner for the collection of what he has won in a game of chance. But any loser in a game of chance may recover his loss from the winner, with legal interest from the time he paid the amount lost, and subsidiarily from the operator or manager of the gambling house. (1799a)

Art. 2016. If the loser refuses or neglects to bring an action to recover what has been lost, his or her creditors, spouse, descendants or other persons entitled to be supported by the loser may institute the action. The sum thereby obtained shall be applied to the creditors’ claims, or to the support of the spouse or relatives, as the case may be. (n)

Art. 2018. If a contract which purports to be for the delivery of goods, securities or shares of stock is entered into with the intention that the difference between the price stipulated and the exchange or market price at the time of the pretended delivery shall be paid by the loser to the winner, the transaction is null and void. The loser may recover what he has paid. (n)


Art. 2034. There may be a compromise upon the civil liability arising from an offense; but such compromise shall not extinguish the public action for the imposition of the legal penalty. (1813)

Art. 2035. No compromise upon the following questions shall be valid:

(1) The civil status of persons;

(2) The validity of a marriage or a legal separation;

(3) Any ground for legal separation;

(4) Future support;

(5) The jurisdiction of courts; (6) Future legitime. (1814a)

Art. 2041. If one of the parties fails or refuses to abide by the compromise, the other party may either enforce the compromise or regard it as rescinded and insist upon his original demand. (n)


Art. 2047. By guaranty a person, called the guarantor, binds himself to the creditor to fulfill the obligation of the principal debtor in case the latter should fail to do so.

If a person binds himself solidarily with the principal debtor, the provisions of Section 4, Chapter 3, Title I of this Book shall be observed. In such case the contract is called a suretyship. (1822a)

Art. 2058. The guarantor cannot be compelled to pay the creditor unless the latter has exhausted all the property of the debtor, and has resorted to all the legal remedies against the debtor. (1830a)

Art. 2059. The excussion shall not take place:

(1) If the guarantor has expressly renounced it;

(2) If he has bound himself solidarily with the debtor;

(3) In case of insolvency of the debtor;

(4) When he has absconded, or cannot be sued within the Philippines unless he has left a manager or representative;

(5) If it may be presumed that an execution on the property of the principal debtor would not result in the satisfaction of the obligation. (1831a)

Art. 1959. Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 2212, interest due and unpaid shall not earn interest. However, the contracting parties may by stipulation capitalize the interest due and unpaid, which as added principal, shall earn new interest. (n)

Art. 2060. In order that the guarantor may make use of the benefit of exclusion, he must set it up against the creditor upon the latter’s demand for payment from him, and point out to the creditor available property of the debtor within Philippine territory, sufficient to cover the amount of the debt. (1832)

Art. 2061. The guarantor having fulfilled all the conditions required in the preceding article, the creditor who is negligent in exhausting the property pointed out shall suffer the loss, to the extent of said property, for the insolvency of the debtor resulting from such negligence. (1833a)

Art. 2062. In every action by the creditor, which must be against the principal debtor alone, except in the cases mentioned in Article 2059, the former shall ask the court to notify the guarantor of the action. The guarantor may appear so that he may, if he so desire, set up such defenses as are granted him by law. The benefit of excussion mentioned in Article 2058 shall always be unimpaired, even if judgment should be rendered against the principal debtor and the guarantor in case of appearance by the latter. (1834a)

Art. 2063. A compromise between the creditor and the principal debtor benefits the guarantor but does not prejudice him. That which is entered into between the guarantor and the creditor benefits but does not prejudice the principal debtor. (1835a)

Art. 2064. The guarantor of a guarantor shall enjoy the benefit of excussion, both with respect to the guarantor and to the principal debtor.

Pledge and Mortgage

Art. 2085. The following requisites are essential to the contracts of pledge and mortgage:

(1) That they be constituted to secure the fulfillment of a principal obligation;

(2) That the pledgor or mortgagor be the absolute owner of the thing pledged or mortgaged;

(3) That the persons constituting the pledge or mortgage have the free disposal of their property, and in the absence thereof, that they be legally authorized for the purpose.

Third persons who are not parties to the principal obligation may secure the latter by pledging or mortgaging their own property. (1857)

Art. 2087. It is also of the essence of these contracts that when the principal obligation becomes due, the things in which the pledge or mortgage consists may be alienated for the payment to the creditor.

Art. 2112. The creditor to whom the credit has not been satisfied in due time, may proceed before a Notary Public to the sale of the thing pledged. This sale shall be made at a public auction, and with notification to the debtor and the owner of the thing pledged in a proper case, stating the amount for which the public sale is to be held. If at the first auction the thing is not sold, a second one with the same formalities shall be held; and if at the second auction there is no sale either, the creditor may appropriate the thing pledged. In this case he shall be obliged to give an acquittance for his entire claim. (1872a) 

Art. 2115. The sale of the thing pledged shall extinguish the principal obligation, whether or not the proceeds of the sale are equal to the amount of the principal obligation, interest and expenses in a proper case. If the price of the sale is more than said amount, the debtor shall not be entitled to the excess, unless it is otherwise agreed. If the price of the sale is less, neither shall the creditor be entitled to recover the deficiency, notwithstanding any stipulation to the contrary. (n) 

Art. 2088. The creditor cannot appropriate the things given by way of pledge or mortgage, or dispose of them. Any stipulation to the contrary is null and void. (1859a)

Art. 2094. All movables which are within commerce may be pledged, provided they are susceptible of possession. (1864)

Art. 2124. Only the following property may be the object of a contract of mortgage:

(1) Immovables;

(2) Alienable real rights in accordance with the laws, imposed upon immovables.

Nevertheless, movables may be the object of a chattel mortgage. (1874a)

Art. 2125. In addition to the requisites stated in Article 2085, it is indispensable, in order that a mortgage may be validly constituted, that the document in which it appears be recorded in the Registry of Property. If the instrument is not recorded, the mortgage is nevertheless binding between the parties.

The persons in whose favor the law establishes a mortgage have no other right than to demand the execution and the recording of the document in which the mortgage is formalized. (1875a)

Art. 2131. The form, extent and consequences of a mortgage, both as to its constitution, modification and extinguishment, and as to other matters not included in this Chapter, shall be governed by the provisions of the Mortgage Law and of the Land Registration Law. (1880a)


Art. 2132. By the contract of antichresis the creditor acquires the right to receive the fruits of an immovable of his debtor, with the obligation to apply them to the payment of the interest, if owing, and thereafter to the principal of his credit. (1881)

Art. 2133. The actual market value of the fruits at the time of the application thereof to the interest and principal shall be the measure of such application. (n)

Art. 2134. The amount of the principal and of the interest shall be specified in writing; otherwise, the contract of antichresis shall be void. (n)

Art. 2135. The creditor, unless there is a stipulation to the contrary, is obliged to pay the taxes and charges upon the estate.

He is also bound to bear the expenses necessary for its preservation and repair.

The sums spent for the purposes stated in this article shall be deducted from the fruits. (1882)

Art. 2136. The debtor cannot reacquire the enjoyment of the immovable without first having totally paid what he owes the creditor.

But the latter, in order to exempt himself from the obligations imposed upon him by the preceding article, may always compel the debtor to enter again upon the enjoyment of the property, except when there is a stipulation to the contrary. (1883)

Art. 2140. By a chattel mortgage, personal property is recorded in the Chattel Mortgage Register as a security for the performance of an obligation. If the movable, instead of being recorded, is delivered to the creditor or a third person, the contract is a pledge and not a chattel mortgage. (n)

What's on your mind? Type it 👇😃